Joris J. Dijkstra (TNO Geological Survey of The Netherlands)
Industrial wastes and by-products are increasingly (re-)used as filling material in constructions. The Netherlands was one of the first countries in Europe that actively established regulations in order to stimulate recycling and ensure environmental safety. Based on latest research at the Geological Survey, it will be illustrated how in the densely urbanized area of the Netherlands, deposits that contain these "novel anthropogenic materials" have become widespread and geologically significant. Next, we will focus further on the interesting geochemical properties of the three most dominant waste materials used in construction: (1) ash remaining from the incineration of household waste (Municipal Solid Waste Incineration bottom ash), (2) slag from steel production, and (3) the stony aggregate fraction of construction and demolition waste. We will discuss their origin and composition as compared to natural materials, their main geochemical weathering reactions, and their influence on the natural geogenic environment. In the lecture, we summarize what we know on how these materials behave in practical applications such as foundations for roads, based on practical experiences in The Netherlands and elsewhere. The lecture will be enlightened with material samples that students can touch and smell, and illustrated with many pictures and experiences from cases in practice.
Required study material for the lecture: Dijkstra, J.J., Comans, R.N.J., Schokker, J., Van Der Meulen, M.J.: The geological significance of novel anthropogenic materials: Deposits of industrial waste and by-products. Anthropocene (28), 2019, 100229, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ancene.2019.100229 2 (open access).